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Oprah’s Childhood Expert May Have Committed Suicide Over Pedophilia Charges

Dr. Melvin Levine apparently committed suicide on Friday, the same day that a class-action suit was brought against him by Carmen Durso. Durso, some may remember, was the lawyer who became famous for bringing the first suit by Boston-area victims of pedophilia against the Catholic Church. That story, first reported in the Boston Globe, ultimately influenced victims around the world to come forward.

“Word of Levine’s death came one day after about 40 of his former patients filed a medical malpractice and sexual abuse suit against him,” reported The New York Times. While a doctor at Children’s Hospital Boston from 1966 to 1985, Levine allegedly “stroked, massaged, and manipulated the genitals of his patients in a manner which was not medically necessary.” The former patients, all now adults, were between the ages of 4 and 17 when abused, according to the lawsuit, which seeks class-action status and unspecified damages for pain and suffering.

Dr. Levine was Professor of Pediatrics at the University of North Carolina Medical School in Chapel Hill and the Director of the University’s Clinical Center for the Study of Development and Learning. He’s also the co-founder of All Kinds of Minds, a nonprofit Institute for the study of differences in learning; and co-chairs the Institute’s Board of Directors with Charles R. Schwab. He is the author of A Mind at a Time, The Myth of Laziness, and Ready or Not, Here Life Comes.

Charges of pedophilia initially emerged in 2008, but Dr. Levine and his organizations, including Children’s Hospital in Boston, denied all wrongdoing.

We asked a source—one of the very first victims to step forward in the Catholic Church pedophilia scandal, who prefers to remain anonymous—what he thought about the timing of Dr. Levine’s death and the class-action suit. “Pedophiles rarely commit suicide for the same reason they don’t respond well to therapy,” he told us. “They don’t think they did anything wrong.”

“I always tell people that from the moment a kid gets up in the morning until he goes to sleep at night, the central mission of the day is to avoid humiliation at all costs,” Dr. Levine.

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The world in 200 years will be populated by a few thousand male humans who live indefinitely, and a huge number of female looking robots. Women aren't needed, really, and anyway, women are troublemakers, more than anything else.

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Lingerie model gets 'designer vagina' after REFUSING doctor's advice to grow her bikini line out

A lingerie model has gone under the knife to get a "designer vagina" to resolve a painful problem with her genitals.

Tracy Kiss, 29, endured pain every single day, whether she was walking along the street, working out or even sitting down.

The single mother-of-two was left fearing she had "deformed" genitals, but a doctor told her the problem was down to excess skin and recommended growing her pubic hair out.

Tracy, who opened up about the problem on 5STAR's Don't Tell The Doctor, chose to undergo surgery instead as she feared the look would not go down well in the modelling world.

Seeking the advice of Doctor Belinda Fenty on the new show, the Buckinghamshire native revealed how she feared her vagina was "deformed".

Speaking to the doctor, who works in gynaecology and antenatal medicine, at her home, Tracy explained how the intimate issue affected her - saying she often had to awkwardly adjust herself in public to try and alleviate the pain.

After attempting to self-diagnose using the web, the model admitted that she had been left scared after viewing a string of responses, choosing instead to seek a definitive answer.

"I’ve only seen [my vagina] when I took a photo to see where the pain was coming from, I was so surprised really in the difference in size and shape and it looks like it’s deformed," she told the programme.

"I think I have excess skin, but I don’t know what to compare it to see how much."

But Doctor Fenty put her fears to rest as she explained the cause of the pain following an examination.

The medical professional told Tracy: "It does not look deformed. The left side looks bigger than the right side, but that is absolutely within the normal range but that’s probably what’s giving you your problem.

"I can see that your inner lips are hanging lower than your outer lips, that is definitely what it going to be causing your problems."

Reassuring the model that she wasn't suffering from any abnormalities, the doctor suggested that Tracy grow out her bikini line to provide a bit of cushioning.

"'I do lingerie modelling and I don’t know how well that would go down," explained Tracy.

"I already think I have quite a big bulge in the skin and think if I have a big bush of hair it would look quite obvious in lingerie."

Choosing instead to take a more drastic approach to solving her issue, she opted to undergo a labiaplasty.

The procedure, also known as vulval surgery, involves the removal of excess skin from the vagina lips.

Heading to eminent cosmetic and reconstructive surgeon Angelica Kavouni's Harley street clinic, Tracy went under the knife.

Staying awake for the procedure, Tracy had a local anaesthetic, while the surgeon seared off the small piece of flesh that had been negatively affecting her.

Despite the painful post-op recovery period, the hopeful model said: "I will get my life back and it's more than worth it."

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You probably have to look at imagery of death and dying regularly to stay focused on what really counts in life: great sex before you are gone anyway.

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Industrial Chemicals as Weapons: Chlorine

Certain recent events in Iraq have elevated long-standing fears that terrorist groups may use poisonous chemicals, especially elemental chlorine, as toxic weapons against vulnerable populations. These concerns rest on a solid factual basis: many chemicals produced for industrial purposes are inherently dangerous due to their possession of one or more of the following properties: reactivity, flammability, explosiveness, toxicity, or carcinogenicity. In particular, the toxic industrial gases anhydrous ammonia, hydrogen fluoride, and elemental chlorine (often referred to as toxic inhalation hazards, or TIH) are of utmost concern from both safety and security standpoints. Any of these chemicals when released in the course of an accident or a deliberate attack can form a toxic gaseous plume that when carried by wind is capable of inflicting potentially catastrophic loss of life on the population in its path. The worst industrial accident in history is illustrative: 40 metric tons of methyl isocyanate was released from a Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, on December 3, 1984. The resulting plume killed at least 3,000 people downwind and injured more than 100,000. A sufficiently large release of elemental chlorine may be capable of exacting a comparable toll, particularly if it were to be discharged in a highly populated civilian area.

This issue brief describes the properties, hazards, and the legitimate applications of chlorine, as well as its use for weapons purposes during World War I and currently in Iraq. The vulnerability of America's chemical infrastructure to deliberate attack (including the facilities that produce, consume, and transport chlorine), as well as efforts currently underway to achieve infrastructure security, are also examined. The brief concludes with an evaluation of alternative approaches to mitigating the potential threat posed by a deliberate chlorine release.

Properties of Chlorine

Chlorine (Cl[2]) is a highly reactive, pale green gas produced industrially by the electrolysis of readily available aqueous sodium chloride (table salt). Worldwide, the annual production of chlorine totals approximately 55 million metric tons.[1] In 2006, the American chemical industry produced 12.2 million metric tons of chlorine, making it one of the ten most produced chemicals in the United States by weight.[2] Chlorine and its derivative chemicals serve myriad functions in modern society. The most important use of chlorine itself is as a disinfectant; for example, chlorine is employed worldwide in drinking water treatment facilities. In addition, chlorine derivatives (materials containing chlorine atoms chemically bound to other elements) are used as bleaching agents, construction materials (especially polyvinyl chloride, or PVC), high purity silicon precursors (e.g. trichlorosilane) for use in computer chip manufacture, pharmaceutical compounds (including "blockbuster" drugs such as Singulair, Plavix, and Norvasc), and many other functional materials.[3]

The high toxicity of chlorine gas tempers the many beneficial uses of the chemical.[4] Chlorine gas is heavier than air, and therefore will disperse slowly into the atmosphere after release. Because chlorine is water soluble, exposure to the gas irritates the mucous membranes and eyes at concentrations (in air) of under 3 parts per million (ppm).[5],[6] Moderate irritation of the upper respiratory tract occurs at 5-15 ppm, followed by chest pain, vomiting, and dyspnea at 30 ppm. Above 50 ppm, lung inflammation and pulmonary edema occurs. Chlorine is deadly at concentrations of several hundred ppm or higher. According to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, a chlorine concentration of 10 ppm is considered to be immediately dangerous to life or health.[7]

Military and Terrorist Use of Chlorine

In what many consider to be the dawn of modern chemical warfare, chlorine was first employed as a "choking agent" in the early days of World War I. On April 22, 1915, during the second battle of Ypres, the German military released approximately 168 metric tons of chlorine from 5,730 buried gas cylinders.[8] The heavy green plume was carried by prevailing winds to the Allied lines, where French and French Algerian soldiers, not suspecting a chemical attack, were taken by surprise and quickly overwhelmed by the chlorine. The attack claimed the lives of at least 800 soldiers, and injured thousands more. While this incident underscores the potential lethality of chlorine, both sides soon realized that chlorine is not a militarily effective chemical weapon against a prepared adversary. In particular, chlorine possesses both a visible color and a strong odor, which alerts people of its presence and enables avoidance. Moreover, the effects of chlorine exposure may be completely or somewhat mitigated using simple countermeasures, such as wearing a gas mask or even covering the nasal passages with a wet cloth. Therefore, chlorine was quickly abandoned in favor of more fearsome chemical agents (e.g. phosgene and mustard gas). Despite its nefarious usage, its widespread manufacture and distribution for industrial and sanitary purposes has continued.

In Iraq, militias or terrorists have detonated bombs rigged to cylinders containing chlorine that originally were intended for water treatment and other industrial uses, with the intention of dispersing the gas over their targets (primarily Iraqi police and civilians). The US military believes that terrorist groups affiliated with Al Qaeda are primarily responsible for these types of attacks.[9] According to the United Nations Monitoring, Inspection, and Verification Commission (UNMOVIC), at least 10 attacks involving chlorine have occurred in Iraq up to June 1, 2007, resulting in dozens of civilian deaths and an unknown number of injuries.[10] An attack on June 3, 2007 targeted a United States military forward operating base and resulted in making 65 US service members ill from chlorine exposure. The perpetrators have used relatively small, easily transportable quantities of chlorine in the attacks, no more than several tons. Deaths have been attributed primarily to the effects of the explosives themselves, not the chlorine.[11] It is reasonable to assume that the efficacy of these attacks will increase as terrorists modify their methods of chlorine dispersion based on past experience.

The attacks in Iraq utilizing chlorine have re-raised simmering questions in the United States: Is the country's chemical infrastructure, especially the sub-sector that makes and stores elemental chlorine, vulnerable to attacks by terrorist elements that would result in the large-scale release of TIH chemicals over population centers? Would facilities where chlorine is stored be attractive to those who seek to harm civilians?

Chlorine presents both disadvantages and some advantages to domestic terrorists. On the one hand, chlorine is not nearly as potent a toxin as other chemical weapons used in terrorist attacks, such as the fluoroorganophosphate nerve agent sarin released on the Tokyo subway on March 20, 1995 by the religious cult Aum Shinrikyo, killing 12. However, nerve agents require substantial finances, advanced equipment, appropriate chemical precursors, and personnel with specialized training in synthetic organic chemistry to prepare. Even then, nerve agent synthesis and dispersion is non-trivial. For example, Aum Shinrikyo used impure sarin coupled with a crude and relatively ineffective delivery system for the subway attack, despite mustering all the resources mentioned above.[12] On the other hand, chlorine does not need to be chemically synthesized (given its abundance), and as a gas does not require active aerosolization for efficient dispersal. Most importantly, a large release of chlorine may inflict mass casualties on unprepared civilians. According to a 2004 report by the Homeland Security Council, a deliberate release of 60,000 gallons of liquefied chlorine from an industrial facility in a highly populated area may result in 17,500 civilian deaths, while the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) estimates that a "worst-case" chemical release would result in fewer than 10,000 deaths.[13][14]

Chemical Facility Security

According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in the United States there are approximately 15,000 facilities, including about 2,000 water systems, which store more than the threshold quantities of hazardous chemicals necessary to trigger EPA regulation. A "worst-case" chemical release from any one of 123 such facilities could expose more than 1,000,000 people to toxic gases.[15] In the aftermath of September 11th, the chemical industry has recognized its potential vulnerability and moved rapidly to enhance facility security. In 2002, the American Chemistry Council (ACC), a chemical industry association whose members control approximately 2,000 facilities, established the Responsible Care[®] Security Code, a mandatory private security initiative.[16] The Security Code requires member facilities to complete vulnerability assessments, perform physical security enhancements, invite an independent, third party audit of these enhancements, conduct employee training and drills, and perform periodic security self-audits. These requirements apply to members of the Chlorine Institute, a trade association and Responsible Care[®] partner whose membership includes 98% of chlorine producers and 100% of chlorine packagers in the United States.[17] According to the ACC, its companies have invested about $3 billion in security improvements since September 11th, and all member facilities have completed security upgrades and subsequent independent audits.[18]

Although private security initiatives have garnered justifiable praise, they are also widely viewed as inadequate. Investigative journalists have easily penetrated dozens of chemical facilities nationwide, including many housing chlorine, over the past several years. For example, in 2003, a reporter was able to approach storage tanks holding approximately 1,000 tons of chlorine gas at the Sony Technology Center in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania.[19] In 2005, reporters from the New York Times were able to approach and loiter near chlorine storage tanks on an industrial site in densely populated Northern New Jersey, only miles from New York City.[20] In addition to the gaps in physical security, facility employees and emergency response personnel are often inadequately prepared to handle a deliberate chemical release.[21] Clearly, comprehensive chemical security requires, in addition to private initiatives, the participation of the public sector in order to safeguard the public most effectively.

At the federal level of government, DHS is responsible for chemical sector security. Until very recently, however, DHS had not received a Congressional mandate to implement and enforce industry-wide security measures.[22] The situation changed in October 2006, when President Bush signed the Homeland Security Appropriations Act, H.R. 5441, which gave DHS interim (3 year) authority to regulate security at chemical facilities. On April 2, 2007, DHS issued the interim final rule regulating chemical facility security, known as the Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards.[23] The rule requires facilities possessing a threshold quantity of one or more of 342 chemicals of interest, including chlorine, to file a report known as a "top screen" with DHS. For chlorine, this threshold level currently is 1,875 lbs or more.[24] Using this data, DHS will perform a risk assessment and categorize "at risk" facilities according to a tiered system, with Tier 1 facilities considered the highest risk and Tier 4 facilities the lowest. A number of factors are considered in the assessment, including the type and amount of chemical(s) stored as well as the layout and location of the facility. DHS currently estimates that 5,000-8,000 facilities will be assigned a ranking in the tier system, with fewer than 1,000 assigned to Tiers 1 & 2.[25] The facilities assigned to a risk tier will be required to submit vulnerability assessments and site security plans, subject to DHS verification, with failure to comply resulting in daily fines and/or shutdown of the facility in violation. Chemical manufacturers have embraced the new rule's risk-based approach, although others, including environmental groups, have highlighted several apparent weaknesses.[26],[27] For example, the rule contains no timetable for compliance, no whistleblower protections, and may preempt more stringent state and local regulations. Furthermore, the rule is not applicable to water and waste treatment facilities that utilize chlorine for disinfection, and does not require these or other chemical facilities to consider replacing chlorine with safer alternatives (see below). Recent thefts of chlorine cylinders from a California water treatment facility have served to underscore the final point.[28]

Security of Chlorine Rail Shipments

Industrial chemicals, like all commodities, must be transported from production facilities to various consumers. For TIH chemicals such as chlorine, freight railroad offers the most viable transportation option for large-scale shipment. Of the approximately 12 million tons of chlorine produced annually in the United States, almost 3 million tons are shipped by rail, usually in 90 ton pressurized tank cars.6 Rail shipment of hazardous materials (hazmat) is very reliable; 99.997% of the ca. 1.8 million annual hazmat shipments in the United States arrive without incident.[29] Although rail accidents involving chlorine are exceedingly rare, when chlorine tank cars are breached, the consequences often are fatal. On June 28, 2004, near San Antonio, Texas, a head-on collision of two trains resulted in a chlorine tank car breach. Two people died of chlorine inhalation, and 50 more were hospitalized for exposure. On January 6, 2005, in Graniteville, South Carolina, another head-on collision resulted in the derailment of three cars containing chlorine. The resultant chlorine plume killed 8 people, injured 240 more, and led to the evacuation of 5400 people from the spill area.[30]

The railroad infrastructure (including trains, tracks, stations, etc.) is vast and relatively accessible, a necessity for rapid and inexpensive exchange of people and goods. The US rail system is comprised of approximately 171,000 miles of track and covers an area of 3,200 square miles.[31] The open nature of rail systems renders them particularly prone to attacks by terrorists and other groups, as no feasible security plan can possibly protect the entire infrastructure simultaneously and at all times. The RAND Corporation estimates that 181 terrorist attacks against railroads worldwide occurred in the period between 1998 and 2003.[32] Most attacks were directed against transit systems, as exemplified by the more recent bombings of the Madrid, London, and Mumbai commuter rail systems. The US freight rail system is as vulnerable as the European rail systems, and many lines pass through densely populated, high threat urban areas (HTUA's), most notably in the Northeastern corridor. Given the large quantities of chlorine shipped by rail, as well as the potentially catastrophic consequences of a large chlorine release, chlorine-containing tanker cars may represent an attractive target for terrorists.

Freight rail security, especially hazmat and TIH chemical transport, has attracted concern since September 11th and, even more so, after the Graniteville, S.C. chlorine accident in 2005. The freight rail industry, through programs initiated by the Association of American Railroads (AAR), has taken a more proactive stance on security issues since September 11th. The Terrorism Risk Analysis and Security Management Plan designed by AAR forms the basis for post-9/11 freight rail security. The plan includes over 50 security enhancements, addressing a number of general issues such as physical security, risk assessment, communications, and enhanced employee security training.[33] The railroads also, through the Transportation Community Awareness and Emergency Response Program (TRANSCAER) and the ACC's Chemical Transportation Emergency Center (Chemtrec), train and inform emergency responders to help them deal with hazmat emergencies. With respect to chlorine and other TIH chemicals, the Union Pacific railroad recently signed a memorandum of understanding with Dow Chemical to upgrade the TIH railcar fleet and procedures for TIH transport. The memorandum calls for the installation of global positioning satellite units on all TIH tank cars, the design of a new, more robust tank car for TIH chemicals, as well as a reduction in the time that TIH tank cars lay idle in urban areas.[34]

There has existed considerable variation in the approaches of local and federal governments to the threat of chlorine rail shipments. Many local governments, particularly HTUA's, are examining the possibility of banning chlorine rail shipments in proximity to highly populated areas. Citing the threat of chlorine, the Washington, D.C. city council voted on February 1, 2005 to ban all hazmat shipments within 2.2 miles of the Capitol, thus forcing rail companies to reroute shipments of chlorine around the city center.[35] CSX Transportation challenged the law in court and received an injunction, which remains in effect as of this writing. The railroad industry argues that: (1) rerouting increases the risk of accidental of deliberate hazmat exposure, due to increased mileage, (2) rerouting simply shifts exposure risk to other populations, and (3) regulatory variations at each locality would impose significant cost and time burdens on the industry. The federal government, represented by the Department of Justice, supported the railroad industry position in this case, arguing that the regulation of interstate commerce is its Constitutional responsibility.[36] The federal agency responsible for freight rail security, the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), has not yet sought to force railroads to reroute chlorine and other TIH chemicals around HTUA's, as it currently is not currently required to do so by law. Rather, TSA and the Department of Transportation (DOT) have issued voluntary security action items to guide private railroad efforts to secure chlorine and other TIH railcars.[37] TSA is also engaged in formulating rules and pilot programs in cooperation with the railroad industry, aimed at reducing the potential for attack on chlorine tankers. In conjunction with other federal, state, and local government agencies, TSA is currently conducting comprehensive reviews of rail corridor security, with a focus on HTUA rail corridors.[38] However, many have perceived federal funding for surface transportation security, including rail security, to be inadequate. The American Public Transportation Association noted in early 2007 that the federal government has allocated $549 million for rail transit security (including both passenger and freight rail security) since September 11, 2001, in contrast to over $24 billion for aviation security.[39]

Although prior security efforts have no doubt made a positive impact on rail security, freight railroads, and the chlorine transported on them, remain poorly protected. Publicly disclosed reports and media investigations over the past five years have identified gaping vulnerabilities in freight rail security. For example, a 2006 report published by the Citizens for Rail Safety (a public interest group) concluded that rail facilities are not sufficiently secure: cars containing hazmat, including TIH such as chlorine, often sit idle and unprotected, rail workers are poorly trained with respect to security, and emergency responders and citizens are ill-prepared for a hazmat emergency.[40] In early 2007, a reporter from the Pittsburgh Tribune-Review published an article describing how he gained access to a number of hazmat-containing (including chlorine) railcars throughout the country.[41] The reporter was not stopped by employees or rail police, and found hazmat-containing railcars unprotected on rails controlled by 12 railroads. These reports followed the publication in 2005 of two Teamsters Rail Conference surveys of rail workers, which reported significant physical security lapses and a notable lack of security training for workers.[42],[43]

Partially in response to the problems cited above, the US Congress passed new homeland security legislation (H.R. 1: Improving America's Security Act of 2007) on July 27, 2007.[44] President Bush has indicated that he will sign the bill into law in August 2007. The legislation will provide significant enhancements in TIH rail transportation security.[45] Provisions in the legislation call for significantly enhanced funding for freight rail safety and security, including hazmat transportation security, infrastructure improvement, and research and development aimed at secure rail car technologies. Specifically, language in the bill encourages the adoption of wireless communications to track the positions of TIH railcars and monitor their status in real-time. Furthermore, DHS and the DOT must require rail carriers shipping TIH chemicals to develop and submit risk mitigation plans to be enacted when the Homeland Security Advisory System threat levels are high or severe. These plans are to include rerouting of TIH chemical shipments away from high consequence targets, including densely populated areas, landmarks, and other important national resources, as designated by DHS. The legislation also calls for the establishment of a "rail worker security training program" and introduces federal whistleblower protections to protect rail employees who report rail security lapses and violations. This legislation promises to mitigate some of the problems currently facing rail security, but the ongoing evolution of public and private measures must continue.

Inherently Safer Technologies

An alternate approach to mitigating the risk posed by chlorine may be to reduce levels of chlorine consumption by replacing chlorine with inherently safer technologies (ISTs). As noted in a 2006 study by the National Academy of Sciences, "The most desirable solution to preventing chemical releases is to reduce or eliminate the hazard where possible, not to control it."[46] The adoption of ISTs to replace TIH chemicals is strongly supported by a number of interested parties, including environmental groups and the railroad industry. Depending on the industrial application, chlorine may in fact be readily replaced with cost-effective alternatives. According to a 2006 study by the Center for American Progress, 207 waste treatment plants and drinking water facilities have replaced chlorine gas with safer disinfectants such as sodium hypochlorite (chlorine bleach) and ultraviolet light since 1999.[47] Adoption of ISTs not only eliminates the TIH risk of chlorine at the chemical facility, but also reduces the risk of chlorine release in transit. For example, since 1999, 25 water facilities in the United States that previously received chlorine shipments by freight rail have switched to ISTs, and six others plan to do so.[48] Despite this progress, over 2,000 water treatment facilities continue to use chlorine gas, with 37 continuing to receive freight rail shipments. These facilities should be encouraged to adopt ISTs, especially in light of the current situation in Iraq and the thefts of chlorine in California in 2007 (see above).

However, chlorine cannot be easily replaced with IST in totality due to its chemical versatility. Notably, water treatment accounts for only about 5% of chlorine consumption. Chlorine remains a central ingredient in the manufacture of other chemicals and materials, most notably plastics, and a cost-effective replacement may not be apparent in many cases. In addition, a main byproduct of chlorine manufacture, sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), is itself an important industrial chemical (the chlorine production process is known as the Chlor-Alkali process for this reason). Eight million metric tons of sodium hydroxide was produced in the United States in 2006. Thus, an analysis of chlorine replacement by IST must explore the economic impact of lowered chlorine and sodium hydroxide production. The replacement of chlorine by IST is a worthy pursuit, but it will be a long-term endeavor.

Conclusion

It is indisputable that should a large chlorine release such as the Graniteville accident take place in the future, it would pose a substantial danger to the public. Moreover, recent studies demonstrate convincingly that chlorine-containing facilities, whether they are chemical plants or railroad infrastructure, may be infiltrated with ease and regularity by trespassers. It may be argued that there exist more readily accessible targets for terrorist attack, including even smaller quantities of chlorine transported by truck. However, given the toll that a large-scale chlorine release could inflict on a population, facilities and railcars containing multi-ton quantities of chlorine warrant increased attention. The DHS and TSA have both worked well with industry to create voluntary chemical security guidelines, yet to date neither agency has imposed stringent regulations governing chlorine security. The establishment of a coherent national policy (which adequately addresses the concerns of individual localities) regarding the issue of TIH railcar rerouting around HTUA's is particularly vital. The recently approved federal legislation addresses rerouting of TIH shipments in times of elevated threat, but a permanent, satisfactory solution for a non-threat environment will also be required. Further, the new Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards issued by DHS do not require the chemical industry to examine adopting ISTs to replace chlorine and other TIH chemicals. While chlorine replacement with an IST should not necessarily be mandatory, incentives should be considered to persuade the chemical industry to adopt safer practices. The federal government should also consider an increase in funding for research aimed at the development of ISTs. If a viable, cost effective IST exists for a given chemical process, it is in the best interest of the chemical industry to adopt it of their own accord in order to safeguard employees, facilities, and the surrounding communities. Increased funding for fundamental research and development of ISTs will hasten this progression. Finally, perhaps the best countermeasure against a large attack using chlorine or other TIH chemicals is public awareness and education. Militarily, it has been known for 80 years that the deleterious effects of chlorine may be attenuated using simple methods. Both private industry and governments at all levels, especially those with chlorine facilities in their jurisdictions, should enhance education and outreach efforts to the public regarding appropriate courses of action (e.g. shelter in place protocols) in the case of a chlorine release incident.

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Why images of decapitation? This is to show that some people have real problems. Other than the issues of feminism, such as sexist language or manspreading.

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Why people kiss

Business Insider

This post from Natalie Engelbrecht, psychotherapist, naturopathic doctor, and researcher, originally appeared on Quora as an answer to the question, "Why do we kiss?"

The scientific study of kissing is called “philematology” (philos in ancient Greek = earthly love). During a kiss, couples exchange 9 mg of water, 0.7 mg of protein, 0.18 mg of organic compounds, 0.71 mg of fats, and 0.45 mg of sodium chloride, along with 10 million to 1 billion bacteria according to one estimate

Kisses use as little as two muscles, burning only 2 to 3 calories, while passionate kissing involves up to 34 facial muscles along with 112 postural muscles and burns around 26 calories per minute.

The original theory was that primate mothers chewed their food for their babies. However, as evolution continued the kiss began to be used to pass on information regarding biological compatibility of a mate via pheromone chemical signals as well as promote social bonding and expressing love, with the ultimate goal of procreation.

With the kiss, partners are able to get close enough to each other to assess essential characteristics about each other, none of which are consciously processed. Although the vomeronasal organs—which are responsible for pheromone detection and brain function in animals—are thought to be vestigial and inactive in humans. Research indicates we do communicate with chemicals.

One study found that when women were asked to smell T-shirts of different men and choose their favourite, the choice was not made randomly but was based on the man whose major histo-compatibility complex (MHC)—a series of genes involved in the males immune system—was different from their own. The importance of this is that different MHCs mean less immune overlap which indicates more healthy offspring.

While men are not selective in terms of kissing, women are very choosy. This is because on an evolutionary level women were looking for a mate to raise their offspring with, and kissing could be an unconscious but accurate way for women to assess the immune compatibility of a mate, before she invests too much time and energy in him.

While males will have sex with women without kissing them beforehand as well as have sex with a woman who is not a good kisser, most women will never have sex without kissing first. Men tend to initiate French kissing and research suggests this is because saliva contains testosterone and this increases the sex drive of their mate. Furthermore, men are able to sense a woman’s level of estrogen which is a predictor of her fertility.

“There is evidence that saliva has testosterone in it,” said Rutgers University anthropologist Helen Fisher, “and testosterone increases sex drive. And there is evidence that men like sloppier kisses with more open mouth. That suggests they are unconsciously trying to transfer testosterone to stimulate sex drive in women.”

Hormone levels change after kissing. Specifically cortisol (stress) levels decreased in men and women after kissing, and the longer a couple is together the lower their stress hormones get. Interestingly oxytocin levels increase in men, however women’s levels decreased.

One theory is that women need more than a kiss to stimulate attachment and bonding. Kissing raises testosterone which increases sex drive, and also increases dopamine promoting romantic love, and oxytocin (men only) which promotes bonding.

Other benefits includes a modest increase in blood pressure and heart rate which helps our cardiac health, increased saliva produced during active kissing which helps to prevent tooth decay, and men who kiss their wives in the morning live 5 years longer on average and also make more money.

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The Spanish masturbation guru Fran Sanchez is on the wrong path. Just imagine him handling his sexuality alone on his couch or in the toilet. A picture of pity, he is.

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'Make rape legal on private property': Shock 'call' from self-styled pick-up guru

A self-styled pick-up guru appears to have called for rape to be legalised in certain situations so that women learn to protect their bodies.

Daryush Valizadeh, who goes by the name Roosh V, made the astonishing suggestion in a blog posting where he argued that men are being treated unfairly.

Under a blog posting called ‘How to Stop Rape’, the American argues that by teaching men not to rape, society was teaching women not to care about being raped.

Roosh, who claims to have written a series of books titled 'Bang' on how to sleep with women from different countries, proposes that the "violent taking of a woman" should not be illegal if done off public ground.

He writes: "For all other rapes, however, especially if done in a dwelling or on private property, any and all rape that happens should be completely legal.

"If rape becomes legal under my proposal, a girl will protect her body in the same manner that she protects her purse and smartphone.

"If rape becomes legal, a girl will not enter an impaired state of mind where she can't resist being dragged off to a bedroom with a man who she is unsure of—she'll scream, yell, or kick at his attempt while bystanders are still around.

"If rape becomes legal, she will never be unchaperoned with a man she doesn't want to sleep with."

He goes on to claim that after several months of advertising the law, rape would be "virtually eliminated".

Roosh, who has previously posted a video to YouTube entitled 'All Public Rapes Allegations Are False, said: "Without daddy government to protect her, a girl would absolutely not enter a private room with a man she doesn't know or trust unless she is absolutely sure she is ready to sleep with him.

"Consent is now achieved when she passes underneath the room's door frame, because she knows that that man can legally do anything he wants to her when it comes to sex.

"Bad encounters are sure to occur, but these can be learning experiences for the poorly trained woman so she can better identify in the future the type of good man who will treat her like the delicate flower that she believes she is."

The blogger, who frequently courts controversy with his attacks on feminism, added: "My proposal eliminates anxiety and unfair persecution for men while empowering women to make adult decisions about their bodies."

After his blog went live, it was shared across social networks – leading to a furious response.

Posting on Twitter, Jenn G said: "Roosh V is scum," while Hannahkaty said: "Not sure there is a word in the English language that articulates what I think of this man."

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Feminism, by creating artificial scarcity of sexual resources, is responsible for much of the deadly infighting among men, as well as male suicides.

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Would You Inject Your Penis With This? (Hint: It Will Make It Bigger)

The Alternative Daily

Some men would try anything to increase the size of their member, from penis stretching to enlargement surgery. Now, one doctor claims that a patient can increase their penis size by having it injected with blood. Would you go to this length (pun intended) for a bigger bulge?

How injecting the penis works

Forget the little blue pill, there’s a new remedy in town. Dr. Norman Rowe, a certified surgeon in New York, told the Daily Mail he can increase penis size by 1.5 inches in just 10 minutes. The Botox-style procedure involves injecting the penis with a patient’s own blood for immediate results.

The method of injecting platelet-rich plasma (blood plasma enriched with platelets) is commonly used in sports medicine in order to rejuvenate muscles and fix injuries. That’s precisely where the doctor got his inspiration for this unusual size-boosting method. And unlike painful surgeries, “There is no recovery period,” said Rowe. “You come in, get the injection, 20 minutes later you’re walking out.”

In addition to increasing size, Rowe says he’s been able to cure erectile dysfunction for some patients. What do you think — would you try this method to increase the size of your penis and fix erectile dysfunction? If not, try these foods and let us know how it goes.

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Restore freedom: Liberty Dependeth on the Silence of the Law. Through out most laws. Return responsibility to heads of families.

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Anesthesia Awareness: Breaking Down the Barriers to Prevention

Opinions surrounding intraoperative awareness may vary, but one thing is certain, even a single case is one too many.

The clinical definition of intraoperative awareness — consciousness during general anesthesia — is a seemingly simple explanation for a complex, and controversial, phenomenon. Opinions surrounding how often intraoperative awareness, also described as anesthesia awareness, occurs, its implications for victims, as well as the best methods for prevention are varied.

But for Carol Weihrer, the issue is crystal clear. Weihrer, who claims she was conscious during a 1998 surgical procedure to remove her right eye, believes that anesthesia awareness is more widespread and debilitating than people realize. And she has the proof, she says, to back-up her claim.

“I have spoken to thousands of people with experiences similar to mine,” said Weihrer. “People like me, whose lives have been turned upside down because of it.”

As founder of the international Anesthesia Awareness Campaign, Weihrer’s goal is to educate the public about the phenomenon and to be a touchstone for other victims.

Weihrer is also lobbying for the mandated use of brain function monitors for patients undergoing general anesthesia. She believes that until these monitors become a standard of care, patients must be proactive in protecting themselves in the OR. “It’s not enough to ask whether a facility has brain function monitors or whether they use them. You must demand that they use them on you during your surgery,” she explained.

Tracking brain waves When used in the OR, brain function monitors reportedly measure a patient’s depth of anesthesia and level of consciousness. One of the most popular tools for this purpose is bispectral index (BIS) technology.

Aspect Medical’s BIS monitor involves measuring the brain’s electrical activity through a sensor placed on the patient’s forehead. The BIS value ranges from 100 (indicating an awake patient) to zero (indicating the absence of brain activity). This information is used to guide administration of anesthetic medication. Aspect’s BIS technology is available as a stand-alone monitor or as a module that can be incorporated into other manufacturers’ monitoring systems.

Irene Osborn, M.D., associate professor of Anesthesiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, and director, Division of Neuroanesthesia, began using BIS technology in 1996 while at NYU Medical Center and currently uses it in about 80 percent of the surgeries she performs. She says it has definitely made an impact on her ability to care for patients.

“The ability to monitor the brain really helps you improve anesthetic care,” said Dr. Osborn. “There is variability in patients’ response to anesthesia — not everyone requires the same dose or concentration,” she continued. “With BIS, I can separate out the different components of anesthesia and determine how much anesthetic is needed for a particular patient.”

Dr. Osborn uses BIS technology to improve the quality of anesthesia and also to monitor for awareness. Often times Versed is administered just prior to surgery to produce amnesia. With the BIS monitor, Dr. Osborn says she can see the effects of the Versed dose and increase it if necessary.

“In the OR there is a lot of monitoring going on — heart rate, blood pressure and various body systems. With BIS, I can also monitor the brain,” Dr. Osborn said.

Not ready for prime time? The American Society of Anesthesiology’s (ASA) “Practice Advisory for Intraoperative Awareness and Brain Function Monitoring” makes several recommendations to assist decision-making for patient care with the goal of reducing awareness, but stops short of mandating the use of brain function monitors for this purpose. Instead, the ASA advises anesthesiologists to use their own discretion when it comes to using the monitors.

Although she personally chooses to use brain function monitoring, Dr. Osborn understands why many of her colleagues have yet to embrace it.

“Brain function monitoring technology is not yet good enough, it’s not real time,” explained Dr. Osborn. “What you see on the monitor reflects something that happened 15 seconds ago.”

Others may simply not want to take the time to understand the monitors. If, for example, there was no muscle relaxant administered to the patient, there may be EMG artifact on the monitor and anesthesiologists must be familiar in working around that, says Dr. Osborn. The monitor will not predict movement, rather, it tells how asleep the patient is.

At Mount Sinai, Dr. Osborn estimates that one-third of the physicians use the technology quite frequently, one-third use it for special cases and one-third refuse to use it at all. She does believe, however, that brain function monitors will become standard operating procedure in all hospitals in about 10 years.

“As the technology matures and as we train another generation of anesthesiologists and nurse anesthetists on how to use it, more will want it and the timing will be right for it to become a standard of care,” Dr. Osborn said.

Determined that this is the case — sooner rather than later — Weihrer has taken her Anesthesia Awareness Campaign on the road, speaking both nationally and internationally to physician groups and other organizations. She has performed Grand Rounds, speaking to anesthesia staff at several East Coast hospitals about her own and others’ experiences. She has worked with The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO), American Association of periOperative Nurses (AORN) and the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists (AANA), and says she is currently collaborating with the ASA on an anesthesia awareness victims database. MedicAlert bracelets are available through the campaign for patients who have suffered awareness in the past or have a familial disposition to anesthesia awareness.

“The Anesthesia Awareness Campaign is definitely gaining momentum,” Weihrer said. “The public is becoming more involved and demanding assurances.”

Weihrer says she will continue to advocate for change in the OR until her efforts are no longer needed — until brain function monitors are used on every general anesthesia patient and there are no more anesthesia awareness victims.

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For the current legal systems in the Western World, and for the mainstream media anyway, doing physical harm to men, or killing them, is peanuts. A woman who kills her sexual partner always gets full sympathy. Never mind what kind of bitch she is.

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